Since late 2016 we have entered the age of disclosures! Fasten your mental safety belt and enjoy the ride! Heretic

Friday, September 28, 2018

Fructose-copper connection

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"The fructose–copper connection: Added sugars induce fatty liver and insulin resistance via copper deficiency", James J. DiNicolantonio, Dennis Mangan, James H. O'Keefe

Quote:

The overconsumption of sugar may be one of the biggest drivers of NAFLD.4 Several factors may be involved in sugar-driven NAFLD, including bacterial translocation from the gut to the liver and advanced glycation end products.8 However, low hepatic copper levels are also implicated in NAFLD; thus sugar consumption can lead to low copper.9 This suggests that the overconsumption of sugar may lead to NAFLD and insulin resistance via hepatic copper deficiency.

In a rat model of NAFLD, dietary sucrose and copper deficiency increased inflammation, fibrosis and lipogenesis.9 Compared to a control diet in which rats were fed with sufficient copper and 10% sucrose, either a high-sucrose diet or a low copper diet increased the hepatic expression of genes regulating inflammation and fibrosis. The low copper diet led to low serum and hepatic copper, increased lipid peroxidation and histopathology similar to that found in NAFLD. The combined low copper and high sugar diet led to all of these changes as well as hepatic insulin resistance and liver damage, but neither low copper nor high sugar caused weight gain. Low copper and high sugar promoted gene expression and physiological processes typical of NAFLD as well as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) even without weight gain.

The fructose component of dietary sucrose, in particular, can induce copper deficiency. In rats, a diet of only 3% fructose from beverage intake – a rather modest fructose consumption that is lower than typical intake of Americans – impaired copper status and led to a significant induction of hepatic injury, iron overload and fat accumulation.10 Therefore, fructose-induced copper deficiency could be an important mechanism behind fructose-induced NAFLD. Ultra-high consumption of fructose is not necessarily required for fructose-induced fatty liver with levels lower than the average American consumption capable of inducing it in rats.

Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Alzheimer and blood glucose

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Sugar’s “tipping point” link to Alzheimer’s disease revealed

For the first time a “tipping point” molecular link between the blood sugar glucose and Alzheimer’s disease has been established by scientists, who have shown that excess glucose damages a vital enzyme involved with inflammation response to the early stages of Alzheimer’s.

Abnormally high blood sugar levels, or hyperglycaemia, is well-known as a characteristic of diabetes and obesity, but its link to Alzheimer’s disease is less familiar.

Diabetes patients have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease compared to healthy individuals. In Alzheimer’s disease abnormal proteins aggregate to form plaques and tangles in the brain which progressively damage the brain and lead to severe cognitive decline.


Dr Rob Williams, Dr Omar Kassaar and Prof Jean van den Elsen

Scientists already knew that glucose and its break-down products can damage proteins in cells via a reaction called glycation but the specific molecular link between glucose and Alzheimer’s was not understood.

But now scientists from the University of Bath Departments of Biology and Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy and Pharmacology, working with colleagues at the Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King’s College London, have unraveled that link.

By studying brain samples from people with and without Alzheimer’s using a sensitive technique to detect glycation, the team discovered that in the early stages of Alzheimer’s glycation damages an enzyme called MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) which plays a role in immune response and insulin regulation.

MIF is involved in the response of brain cells called glia to the build-up of abnormal proteins in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease, and the researchers believe that inhibition and reduction of MIF activity caused by glycation could be the ‘tipping point’ in disease progression. It appears that as Alzheimer’s progresses, glycation of these enzymes increases.

Reference:

"Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is subjected to glucose modification and oxidation in Alzheimer’s Disease", by
Omar Kassaar et al.


Friday, September 21, 2018

No benefit in LDL-C lowering, trend toward harm.

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Quote

No beneficial relationship was found between LDL-C lowering and cardiovascular events explored by meta-regression; instead, there was a trend toward harm.

The systematic review ...,Battaggia A, et al. Curr Med Res Opin. 2018.

Quote

CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between LDL-C lowering and cardiovascular events has not showed any significant association (and even a tendency toward harm), challenging the "lower the better" theory. A separate meta-analysis of trials recruiting familial hypercholesterolemia patients has showed a tendency to harm for all outcomes with PCSK9 antibodies. Therefore, at the moment, the data available from randomized trials does not clearly support the use of these antibodies.