Since late 2016 we have entered the age of disclosures! Fasten your mental safety belt and enjoy the ride! Heretic

Sunday, November 11, 2018

To reduce nitrates eat less vegetables

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5 times more dietary nitrates come from vegetables than from cured meats!

Not as bad ...  (Wiki - Saussage)

Not as healthy ...(Wiki Healthy_diet)
"Contribution of vegetables and cured meat to dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in Italian population: Safe level for cured meat and controversial role of vegetables"
Rossana Roila et al., Italian Journal of Food Safety, Vol 7, No 3 (2018)

Paper

Table 1 from the quoted paper.

The paper found that most nitrates in an average diet studied, come from vegetables not cured meats!


Quote:
The average consumption among population resulted 3.45 g/kg bw/die [gram per kg body per daily dietary intake] and 0.62 g/kg bw/die for vegetables and cured meat respectively. The obtained data confirm that nitrate ADI was higher than the limits of 3.7 mg/kg bw/die for infants and was the highest exposure level for people of all ages. Cured meat consumption did not contribute to nitrate ADI exceedance neither as a mean nor as 99th percentile of exposure.






Monday, November 5, 2018

Mediterranean diet is good, adding meat & dairy makes it better!

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as the following two studies have recently demonstrated:

1) "A Mediterranean-style eating pattern with lean, unprocessed red meat has cardiometabolic benefits for adults who are overweight or obese in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial",
Lauren E O'Connor, Douglas Paddon-Jones, Amy J Wright, Wayne W Campbell,
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 108, Issue 1, 1 July 2018, Pages 33–40

Note: they used lean read meat. I predict a follow-up study titled "A Mediterranean-style eating pattern with fatty, unprocessed red meat has the greatest cardiometabolic benefits"!


2) "A Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods improves markers of cardiovascular risk: results from the MedDairy randomized controlled trial",
Alexandra T Wade, Courtney R Davis, Kathryn A Dyer, Jonathan M Hodgson, Richard J Woodman, Karen J Murphy,
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, nqy207, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy207
Published: 22 October 2018


Quote:

Results
Compared with the LF intervention, the MedDairy intervention resulted in a significantly lower morning SBP (mean difference: −1.6 mm Hg; 95% CI: −2.8, −0.4 mm Hg; P = 0.01), lower morning diastolic blood pressure (mean difference: −1.0; 95% CI: −1.7, −0.2 mm Hg; P = 0.01) and clinic SBP (mean difference: −3.5 mm Hg; 95% CI: −6.4, −0.7 mm Hg; P = 0.02), significantly higher HDL cholesterol (mean difference: 0.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06 mmol/L; P < 0.01), lower triglycerides (mean difference: = −0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.08, −0.01 mmol/L; P < 0.01), and lower ratio of total to HDL cholesterol (mean difference: −0.4; 95% CI: −0.6, −0.2; P < 0.001). No effects were observed for other outcome measures. Conclusions
Following a MedDiet with additional dairy foods led to significant changes in markers of cardiovascular risk over 8 wk. The MedDiet supplemented with dairy may be appropriate for an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors in a population at risk of CVD.

Thursday, October 18, 2018

Whole-grain wheat - disproven!

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The effects of whole-grain compared with refined wheat, rice, and rye on the postprandial blood glucose response: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Kathy Musa-Veloso et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 108, Issue 4, 1 October 2018, Pages 759–774,

Quote:

The consumption of ground (wholemeal) wheat, compared with white wheat, was not associated with a significant reduction in blood glucose AUC [Area Under Curve] (−6.7 mmol/L ⋅ min; 95% CI: −25.1, 11.7 mmol/L ⋅ min; P = 0.477). The consumption of wholemeal rye, compared with endosperm rye, was not associated with a significant reduction in blood glucose AUC (−5.5 mmol/L ⋅ min; 95% CI: −24.8, 13.8 mmol/L ⋅ min; P = 0.576). ...

Note: there was some reduction in blood glucose spike (area under curve) following a meal with whole-grain rice versus white rice!

Thursday, October 4, 2018

LDL does not cause heart disease

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Recent paper by Uffe Ravnskov (et al.) - the father of cholesterol "red-pilling"!

"LDL-C Does Not Cause Cardiovascular Disease: a comprehensive review of current literature",
Uffe Ravnskov et al., Taylor & Francis Online, 10 Sep 2018



Key issues (quoted):

  • The hypothesis that high TC or LDL-C causes atherosclerosis and CVD has been shown to be false by numerous observations and experiments.
  • The fact that high LDL-C is beneficial in terms of overall lifespan has been ignored by researchers who support the lipid hypothesis.
  • The assertion that statin treatment is beneficial has been kept alive by individuals who have ignored the results from trials with negative outcomes and by using deceptive statistics.
  • That statin treatment has many serious side effects has been minimized by individuals who have used a misleading trial design and have ignored reports from independent researchers.
  • That high LDL-C is the cause of CVD in FH is questionable because LDL-C does not differ between untreated FH individuals with and without CVD.
  • Millions of people all over the world, including many with no history of heart disease, are taking statins, and PCSK-9 inhibitors to lower LDL-C further are now being promoted, despite unproven benefits and serious side effects.
  • We suggest that clinicians should abandon the use of statins and PCSK-9 inhibitors, and instead identify and target the actual causes of CVD.


More Quotes (chapter headlines):

2.1 No association between TC and degree of atherosclerosis

2.2 No exposure-response

3.1 An idea supported by fraudulent reviews of the literature

4. Does high LDL-C cause atherosclerosis? 4.1 An idea based on selected patient groups

5.1 LDL-C of patients with acute myocardial infarction is lower than normal

5.2 Elderly people with high LDL-C live the longest

6.1 No exposure-response in the statin trials

6.2 The benefit of statin treatment is exaggerated

6.3 The benefit from statin treatment has been questioned

6.4 Adverse effects from statin treatment

6.5 Does treatment with PCSK-9 inhibitors improve the outcome?
A new cholesterol-lowering drug has recently been introduced. It is an antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin–kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which lowers LDL-C by approximately 60%. In FOURIER, the largest and longest PCSK-9 inhibitor trial, Evolocumab was compared with placebo in more than 27,000 statin-treated patients with CVD [92]. The trial was stopped after 2.2 years because the number of MVE was reduced with statistical significance (9.8% vs. 11.3%). However, both CVD mortality and total mortality had increased, although not with statistical significance. A relevant question is therefore, why the trial, the sponsor of which (Amgen) was responsible for data collection, was ended after only 2.2 years. Furthermore, this trial is yet another proof that there is no exposure-response between LDL-C and total or CVD mortality.

7. Does FH prove that high LDL-C causes CVD?

7.1 A low percent of FH [Familial Hypercholesterolemia] individuals die prematurely

7.2 No LDL-C difference between FH individuals with and without CVD

8. Has CVD mortality decreased after the introduction of statin treatment? ...
American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [103] found that during the period 1999-2006 the number of AMI and strokes increased from 3.4 to 3.7%, and from 2.0 to 2.9%, respectively. During the same period mean LDL-C level decreased from 126.1 to 114.8 mg/dL, and the self-reported use of lipid-lowering drugs increased from 8 to 13.4%. Furthermore, statin utilization in 12 European countries between 2000 and 2012 was not associated with reduced CHD mortality or its rate of change over the years [104].

9. Conclusion
The idea that high cholesterol levels in the blood are the main cause of CVD is impossible because people with low levels become just as atherosclerotic as people with high levels and their risk of suffering from CVD is the same or higher. The cholesterol hypothesis has been kept alive for decades by reviewers who have used misleading statistics, excluded the results from unsuccessful trials and ignored numerous contradictory observations.

Quoting the captions for the figures!

Figure 2. The association between degree of LDL-C lowering and the absolute risk reduction of total mortality (per cent per year) in 26 statin trials, where total mortality was recorded and which were included in the study by Silverman et al. and in 11 ignored trials. ARR is weakly associated with degree of LDL-C lowering in the included trials (y = 0.28x + 0.06), but inversely associated in the excluded trials (y = - 0.49x - 0.81). Symbols: see figure 1.

According to Ference et al. [3] the most compelling clinical evidence for causality is provided by “the presence of more than 30 randomized cholesterol-lowering trials that consistently demonstrate that reducing LDL-C reduces the risk of CVD events proportional to the absolute reduction in LDL-C.” As previously noted, this is not true exposure-response. Furthermore, in their figure 5A, that illustrates the association, the authors have only included data from12 of the 30 trials they refer to. If all of the trials in table 1 are included, as we have done in figure 3, there is no association between LDL-C lowering and coronary event rate.

Figure 5. The association between the absolute risk reduction of total mortality in 26 statin trials included in the study by Silverman et al. and in 11 ignored trials; and the year where the trial protocols were published. The vertical line indicates the year where the new trial regulations were introduced. [penalizing publication of false results - the new trials show no risk reduction! commented by S.B.]


-------
added 5/10/2018


QJM. 2018 May 1;111(5):319-325. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcy043.
A longitudinal 20 years of follow up showed a decrease in the survival of heart failure patients who maintained low LDL cholesterol levels.
Charach G1





Friday, September 28, 2018

Fructose-copper connection

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"The fructose–copper connection: Added sugars induce fatty liver and insulin resistance via copper deficiency", James J. DiNicolantonio, Dennis Mangan, James H. O'Keefe

Quote:

The overconsumption of sugar may be one of the biggest drivers of NAFLD.4 Several factors may be involved in sugar-driven NAFLD, including bacterial translocation from the gut to the liver and advanced glycation end products.8 However, low hepatic copper levels are also implicated in NAFLD; thus sugar consumption can lead to low copper.9 This suggests that the overconsumption of sugar may lead to NAFLD and insulin resistance via hepatic copper deficiency.

In a rat model of NAFLD, dietary sucrose and copper deficiency increased inflammation, fibrosis and lipogenesis.9 Compared to a control diet in which rats were fed with sufficient copper and 10% sucrose, either a high-sucrose diet or a low copper diet increased the hepatic expression of genes regulating inflammation and fibrosis. The low copper diet led to low serum and hepatic copper, increased lipid peroxidation and histopathology similar to that found in NAFLD. The combined low copper and high sugar diet led to all of these changes as well as hepatic insulin resistance and liver damage, but neither low copper nor high sugar caused weight gain. Low copper and high sugar promoted gene expression and physiological processes typical of NAFLD as well as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) even without weight gain.

The fructose component of dietary sucrose, in particular, can induce copper deficiency. In rats, a diet of only 3% fructose from beverage intake – a rather modest fructose consumption that is lower than typical intake of Americans – impaired copper status and led to a significant induction of hepatic injury, iron overload and fat accumulation.10 Therefore, fructose-induced copper deficiency could be an important mechanism behind fructose-induced NAFLD. Ultra-high consumption of fructose is not necessarily required for fructose-induced fatty liver with levels lower than the average American consumption capable of inducing it in rats.

Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Alzheimer and blood glucose

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Sugar’s “tipping point” link to Alzheimer’s disease revealed

For the first time a “tipping point” molecular link between the blood sugar glucose and Alzheimer’s disease has been established by scientists, who have shown that excess glucose damages a vital enzyme involved with inflammation response to the early stages of Alzheimer’s.

Abnormally high blood sugar levels, or hyperglycaemia, is well-known as a characteristic of diabetes and obesity, but its link to Alzheimer’s disease is less familiar.

Diabetes patients have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease compared to healthy individuals. In Alzheimer’s disease abnormal proteins aggregate to form plaques and tangles in the brain which progressively damage the brain and lead to severe cognitive decline.


Dr Rob Williams, Dr Omar Kassaar and Prof Jean van den Elsen

Scientists already knew that glucose and its break-down products can damage proteins in cells via a reaction called glycation but the specific molecular link between glucose and Alzheimer’s was not understood.

But now scientists from the University of Bath Departments of Biology and Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy and Pharmacology, working with colleagues at the Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King’s College London, have unraveled that link.

By studying brain samples from people with and without Alzheimer’s using a sensitive technique to detect glycation, the team discovered that in the early stages of Alzheimer’s glycation damages an enzyme called MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) which plays a role in immune response and insulin regulation.

MIF is involved in the response of brain cells called glia to the build-up of abnormal proteins in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease, and the researchers believe that inhibition and reduction of MIF activity caused by glycation could be the ‘tipping point’ in disease progression. It appears that as Alzheimer’s progresses, glycation of these enzymes increases.

Reference:

"Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is subjected to glucose modification and oxidation in Alzheimer’s Disease", by
Omar Kassaar et al.


Friday, September 21, 2018

No benefit in LDL-C lowering, trend toward harm.

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Quote

No beneficial relationship was found between LDL-C lowering and cardiovascular events explored by meta-regression; instead, there was a trend toward harm.

The systematic review ...,Battaggia A, et al. Curr Med Res Opin. 2018.

Quote

CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between LDL-C lowering and cardiovascular events has not showed any significant association (and even a tendency toward harm), challenging the "lower the better" theory. A separate meta-analysis of trials recruiting familial hypercholesterolemia patients has showed a tendency to harm for all outcomes with PCSK9 antibodies. Therefore, at the moment, the data available from randomized trials does not clearly support the use of these antibodies.

Saturday, August 25, 2018

Vaccination studies

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I am posting few links collected in the course of on-line reading. They are by no means complete or definite but a place to start. I will be adding to the list and will include more screeenshots (if the links are paywalled) as we go.

New Study: Hepatitis B Vaccine Triples the Risk of Autism in Infant Boys

Quote:

To begin with, it is unscientific and perilously misleading for anyone to assert that “vaccines and autism” have been studied and that no link has been found. That’s because the 16 or so studies constantly cited by critics of the hypothesis have examined just one vaccine and one vaccine ingredient.

And, the population studies themselves have had critical design flaws and limitations.

The current US childhood immunization schedule calls for 28 injections with 11 different vaccines against 15 different diseases by two years of age. Of those 11 vaccines, only the Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) shot has been studied in association with autism, (although a CDC study of an MMR-plus-chickenpox vaccine did show that the risk for febrile seizures in infants was doubled.) Meanwhile, those 11 vaccines contain scores of ingredients, only one of which, thimerosal, has ever been tested in association with autism.


More studies







Saturday, August 11, 2018

cereal-free diet with vit D suppresses dental caries in children

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By an order of magnitude, as shown in the following intervention study done on young children age 5-6 over 6 months:


Remarks
ON THE INFLUENCE OF A CEREAL-FREE DIET RICH IN VITAMIN D AND CALCIUM ON DENTAL CARIES IN CHILDREN
BY MAY MELLANBY AND C. LEE PATTISON, The British Medical Journal, MARCH 19, 1932





Summary:

1. A group of children averaging 5.1 years of age were given a cereal-free diet rich in vitamin D and calcium for a period of six months. The teeth of the children were defective in structure (hypoplastic), and much active dental caries was present at the beginning of the investigation.

2. Initiation and spread of caries were almost eliminated by these diets, and the results were better than those of the previous investigation in which-the vitamin D alone was increased in a diet containing bread and other cereals.


Quotes:


They indicate that a diet rich in vitamin D and calcium and devoid of cereals has greater inhibitory and curative effects on dental caries than any previously tested. Thus the new carious points observed to develop during the feeding period were only 0.05 per child as compared with the previous best result of 0.2 per child. The figure 0.05 is so small that it probably falls within the margin of error of this type of observation, and new caries may be considered, therefore, to have been suppressed.
...
The tests do not indicate that in order to prevent dental caries children must live on a cereal-free diet, but in association with the results of the other investigations on animals and children they do indicate that the amount of cereal eaten should be reduced, particularly during infancy and in the earlier years of life, and should be replaced by an increased consumption of milk, eggs, butter, potatoes, and other vegetables. They also indicate that-a sufficiency of vitamin D and calcium should be given from birth, and before birth, by supplying a suitable diet to the pregnant mother. The teeth of the children would be well formed and more resistant to dental caries instead of being hypoplastic and badly calcified, as were those in this investigation.

Comment

Want healthy teeth? Don't eat cereals, better yet eat high animal fat low carb diet with no wheat. I  haven't been to and had no need to use a dentist since 1998. I am 62.

"give us our daily bread" - on second thought - no thanks!

Heretic

how corporations use scientists to manipulate the public

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The lawsuit and a verdict against Monsanto described in the article below illustrates the way large corporations use scientists to manipulate public opinion and to hide the inconvenient facts. I expect similar outcomes when the corporations and activists behind "Global Warming/Climate Change" and "Cholesterol/Fat Theory of Heart Disease" will be brought to trial in the similar fashion.

Monsanto ordered to pay $289m as jury rules weedkiller caused man's cancer

Quotes:

Johnson’s lawyers argued over the course of a month-long trial in San Francisco that Monsanto had “fought science” for years and targeted academics who spoke up about possible health risks of the herbicide product.
...
In the extraordinary verdict, which Monsanto said it intends to appeal, the jury ruled that the company was responsible for “negligent failure” and knew or should have known that its product was “dangerous”.

“We were finally able to show the jury the secret, internal Monsanto documents proving that Monsanto has known for decades that ... Roundup could cause cancer,” Johnson’s lawyer Brent Wisner said in a statement.
...
Johnson’s case was particularly significant because a judge allowed his team to present scientific arguments. The dispute centered on glyphosate, which is the world’s most widely used herbicide. The verdict came a month after a federal judge ruled that cancer survivors or relatives of the deceased could bring similar claims forward in another trial.

During the lengthy trial, the plaintiff’s attorneys brought forward internal emails from Monsanto executives that they said demonstrated how the corporation repeatedly ignored experts’ warnings, sought favorable scientific analyses and helped to “ghostwrite” research that encouraged continued usage.
...
Another Roundup cancer trial is scheduled to begin in the fall in St Louis, Missouri. According to Johnson’s lawyers, Monsanto is facing more than 4,000 similar cases across the US.

"Ghostwrite" research means that the corporations hired and paid some scientists to publish falsified or incomplete material in scientific journals in order to portray the company in a favorable light or to obfuscate the wrong-doings.

The following letter outlines the tactics employed by the corporation to manufacture a false outcry in the media and rally the public opinion against the whisteblowers and organisation (in this case IARC / WHO ) that have published damaging facts.

How Monsanto Manufactured ‘Outrage’ at IARC over Cancer Classification

As a side note I find it amusing that the similar to the above-described public-opinion manipulation techniques have been employed since 2016 in the English language media to manufacture an artificial anti-Trump and anti-Republican 'outrage', known as "Trump-Derangement Syndrome". :)

Heretic

Thursday, August 9, 2018

salt and cardiovascular risk debunked

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It was a fake theory! Fake - I like this word.

A Canadian study, just published in The Lancet:
Urinary sodium excretion, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality: a community-level prospective epidemiological cohort study
Andrew Menteet al., VOLUME 392, ISSUE 10146, P496-506, AUGUST 11, 2018


Quote:

The association between mean sodium intake and major cardiovascular events showed significant deviations from linearity (p=0.043) due to a significant inverse association in the lowest tertile of sodium intake (lowest tertile <4.43 g/day, mean intake 4.04 g/day, range 3.42-4.43; change -1.00 events per 1000 years,...

Sodium intake was associated with cardiovascular disease and strokes only in communities where mean intake was greater than 5 g/day.

Halite (rock salt) from the Wieliczka salt mine,


Note: "inverse" association means that lower sodium INCREASES the rate of disease. In this case the cutoff threshold for the inverse relation is about 4g per day. The recommended daily dose of sodium by the fake (I love it) medical authorities is about 2g/day. Also, the usage of the unit "minus one event per 1000 years" has to be interpreted such that statistically there is one event less than the average, per 1000 patients per year rather than having to wait 1000 years for one patient event.

Read also here:

Salt not as damaging to health as previously thought, says study

Quote:
The study suggests that very low levels of salt could lead to more heart attacks and suggests that moderate salt consumption may be protective.
...
The World Health Organization recommends cutting sodium intake to no more than 2g a day - the equivalent of 5g of salt - because of the link to increased blood pressure, which is in turn implicated in stroke.



Thursday, July 26, 2018

Lancet - A lot of what is published is incorrect

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Offline: What is medicine's 5 sigma? by Richard Horton, Published in "The Lancet" 11 April 2015

Quote

The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. As one participant put it, “poor methods get results”. The Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Research Council, and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council have now put their reputational weight behind an investigation into these questionable research practices. The apparent endemicity of bad research behaviour is alarming. In their quest for telling a compelling story, scientists too often sculpt data to fit their preferred theory of the world. Or they retrofit hypotheses to fit their data. Journal editors deserve their fair share of criticism too. We aid and abet the worst behaviours. Our acquiescence to the impact factor fuels an unhealthy competition to win a place in a select few journals. Our love of “significance” pollutes the literature with many a statistical fairy-tale. We reject important confirmations. Journals are not the only miscreants. Universities are in a perpetual struggle for money and talent, endpoints that foster reductive metrics, such as high-impact publication. National assessment procedures, such as the Research Excellence Framework, incentivise bad practices. And individual scientists, including their most senior leaders, do little to alter a research culture that occasionally veers close to misconduct.



Saturday, July 21, 2018

Diabetes T2 reversal by diet

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From us gov link

SARAH HALLBERG: Don’t manage diabetes, reverse it


Quote:

Diabetes is reversible. That’s the exciting conclusion of a study I’m leading at Indiana University Health.
Two hundred and sixty-two patients with type-2 diabetes recently completed one year of a clinical trial examining the impact of a low-carbohydrate diet, which limits foods like grains and pasta while boosting consumption of healthy fats like avocados and butter. The diet didn’t restrict calories.
...
A full 94 percent of patients on the low-carb intervention have been able to reduce or eliminate their need for insulin. For six in ten patients, average blood sugar levels fell so low that technically, they had reversed their diabetes.
...
With conventional treatment regimens, according to a study in Diabetes Care, only 0.1 percent of patients achieve complete remission.


High fat low carb cures dry eye condition

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See also

Dry Eye: An Interview With Corneal Specialist Dr. Peter Polack
July 20, 2018 By Dr. William Davis



My commment:

I had "dry eye" condition for 10 years in the 1990-ties. Nothing helped, no doctor had any clue how to fix it. Until in 07/1999 I switched to a HFLC diet & stayed on - it went away after a few weeks never to reoccur ever again!

Friday, July 20, 2018

Carbohydrates are killing us

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"Carbohydrates are killing us"
By Eric Thorn - (cardiologist affiliated with the Virginia Hospital Center)- Sunday, July 8, 2018

Quote:

Consider a report published last year in The Lancet that studied nutrition among more than 135,000 people across 18 different countries — making it the largest-ever observational study of its kind. The researchers found that people who ate the least saturated fat — about the same amount currently recommended for heart patients — had the highest rates of heart disease and mortality. Meanwhile, people who consumed the most saturated fat had the lowest rate of strokes.


Identify what is bad for you ... (Wiki Bacon)


Reference study:

Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study


Friday, July 13, 2018

Saturated fat reduces stroke death by 42%

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Saturated fats in yoghurt, cheese and butter do NOT increase the risk of heart disease - and may actually prevent a stroke

Referenced study:

Serial measures of circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study,
Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Xiaoling Song, Irena B King, David S Siscovick, Dariush Mozaffarian, 11 July 2018



Wiki Cheese


Quote

Lead author Dr Marcia Otto, from the University of Texas, Houston, said: 'Our findings not only support, but also significantly strengthen, the growing body of evidence which suggests that dairy fat, contrary to popular belief, does not increase risk of heart disease or overall mortality in older adults.

'In addition to not contributing to death, the results suggest that one fatty acid present in dairy may lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease, particularly from stroke.'

Dietary guidelines in the US and UK recommend people people opt for low or no-fat dairy, however, the researchers warn such options are often high in sugar, which can drive heart disease.